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This entry is arranged according to the outline below. There is no single designation common to all Jews and employed in all periods by which the Jewish Scriptures have been known. Its antiquity is supported by its use in Daniel in reference to the prophets Dan. This is how the sacred writings are Spirit Of Exellence (Daniel 5:12) - Dr. Allean Varnado - Im A Whosoever (Mark 11:23-24) referred to in tannaitic literature Meg.
The author of i Maccabeeswho certainly wrote in Hebrew c. In the early first century c. The appelation is rare, however, since the increasing restriction of sefer in rabbinic Hebrew to sacred literature rendered superfluous any further description. On the other hand, Kitvei ha-Kodesh Kitve ha-Qodesh ; "Holy Writings"is fairly common in tannaitic sources as a designation for the Scriptures Shab. These, too, were taken over by the Jews of Alexandria in the Greek equivalent, probably the earliest such example being the Letter of Aristeas vv.
These uses of the Hebrew root ktb "to write" to specify the Scriptures have special significance, for they lay emphasis on the written nature of the text in contradistinction to the oral form in which the rabbinic teachings were transmitted. The designation is found in tannaitic sources Ned.
While it is only occasionally so employed for the Bible in rabbinic literature cf. Thoroughly Christian is the characterization " Old Testament " i.
This term is used to distinguish the Jewish Bible from the " New Testament " i. At the same time, it is possible that the designation "Testament" i. Jeremiah —32 himself uses "covenant" and "Torah" synonymously, and the "Book of the Torah" Spirit Of Exellence (Daniel 5:12) - Dr. Allean Varnado - Im A Whosoever (Mark 11:23-24) in the Temple ii Kings10 is alternatively styled the "Book of the Covenant" ibid. The term as applied to the Bible designates specifically the closed nature of the corpus of sacred literature accepted as authoritative because Colorado Song - The Ozark Mountain Daredevils - The Ozark Mountain Daredevils is believed to be divinely revealed.
The history of the word helps to explain its usage. Metaphorically, it came to be used as a rule or standard of excellence and was so applied by the Alexandrian grammarians to the Old Greek classics. However, tannaitic literature does employ the phrase mettame et ha-Yadayim "rendering the hands unclean" to convey what is commonly understood by "canonical.
Whatever the true origin and purpose of this legislation Yad. Hence, rabbinic Spirit Of Exellence (Daniel 5:12) - Dr. Allean Varnado - Im A Whosoever (Mark 11:23-24) about the full canonicity or otherwise of Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs Eduy.
The concept enshrined in the "canon" is distinctively and characteristically Jewish. Through it the canonized Scriptures were looked upon as the faithful witness to the national past, the embodiment of the Spirit Of Exellence (Daniel 5:12) - Dr. Allean Varnado - Im A Whosoever (Mark 11:23-24) and dreams of a glorious future, and the guarantee of their fulfillment. They constituted, in time, the main source for the knowledge of Hebrew and typified the supreme standard of stylistic excellence.
Through the instrumentality of the Oral Law they represented the force of truth, wisdom, law, and morality. In short, the development of the canon proved to be a revolutionary step in the history of religion, and the concept was consciously adopted by Christianity and Islam.
It should be noted, however, that the above refers to the canon solely in respect of its religious connotation. There is evidence that as early as the second half of the second millennium b. There emerged a widely diffused, recognizable body of literature with fixed authoritative texts, the sequence and arrangement of which were firmly established.
This discovery is significant because it provides an important precedent for the external features of canonical literature, and it means that the process of canonical development could have begun quite early in Israel's history. Unfortunately, there is no direct information about the origins of the canon, nor can the criteria of selectivity adopted by those who fixed it be ascertained.
It is clear that the books that make up the Bible cannot possibly have contained the entire literary production of ancient Israel. The Scriptures themselves bear testimony to the existence of an extensive literature which is now lost. Prophetic compositions are ascribed to Samuel, Nathan, and Gad i Chron. The references to the chronicles of King David Chron. A category of literature called "Midrash" ii Chron. While it is true that in many of these instances it is possible that the same work has been referred to under different titles and that the caption sefer might indicate a section of a book rather than the whole, it cannot be doubted that numerous other works must have existed which were not mentioned in the Bible.
In fact, the very concept of a scriptural canon presupposes a process of selection extending over a long period. The quantitative disproportion between the literary productions and the literary remains of ancient Israel is extreme.
The main factor at work was the natural struggle for survival. The absence of mass literacy, the labor of hand copying, and the perishability of writing materials in an inhospitable climate all combined to limit circulation, restrict availability, and reduce the chances of a work becoming standard. In addition, the Land of Israel was more frequently plundered and more thoroughly devastated than any other in the ancient Near East. At the same time, in the historical realities of the pre-Exilic period Israel's cultural productions had scant prospects of being disseminated beyond its natural frontiers.
Developments within Israel itself also contributed. The change of script that occurred in the course of Persian hegemony doubtless drove out of circulation many books, while the mere existence of canonized corpora almost inevitably consigned excluded compositions to oblivion.
Certainly there were other books, including some of those cited above, which were reputed holy or written under the inspiration of the divine spirit, but why they did not enter the canon cannot be determined.
The possibility of chance as a factor in preservation cannot be entirely dismissed. Some works probably survived because of their literary beauty alone. A very powerful instrument must have been scribal and priestly schools which, by virtue of their inherent conservatism, would tend to transmit the basic study texts from generation to generation.
Similarly, the repertoire of professional guilds of Temple singers would be self-perpetuating, as would the liturgies recited on specific occasions in the Jerusalem Temple and the provincial shrines. Material that appealed to national sentiment and pride, such as the narration of the great events of the past and the basic documents of the national religion, would, particularly if employed in the cult, inevitably achieve wide popularity and be endowed with sanctity.
Not everything that was regarded as sacred or revealed was canonized; but sanctity was the indispensable ingredient for canonicity. It was not, in general, the stamp of canonization that conferred holiness upon a book — rather the reverse. Sanctity antedated and preconditioned the formal act of canonization, which in most cases, simply made final a long-existing situation.
Of course, the act of canonization, in turn, served to reinforce, intensify, and perpetuate the attitude of reverence, veneration, and piety with which men approached the Scriptures, and itself became the source of authority that generated their unquestioned acceptance as the divine word. The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses.
It appears in Joshua —32; and Kings i Kings ; ii Kings ;but it cannot be said to refer there to the entire corpus. In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works Mal. The English names for the books of the Torah — Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy — derive from those of the Latin Bible which, in turn, have their origins 13 Inch Bullet - Various - Special Series Vol.
01 titles current among the Greek-speaking Jews, who translated Hebrew designations in use among their coreligionists in Palestine. Another method of naming was to entitle a book by its opening word or words, or by its first significant word; cf. Finally, there is also evidence that ordinal numbers were used cf. The popular epithet "minor" in connection with these twelve has a solely quantitative connotation and is Spirit Of Exellence (Daniel 5:12) - Dr.
Allean Varnado - Im A Whosoever (Mark 11:23-24) indication of relative importance. The names of the books are based upon the central figure or reputed author. The subdivision of the Prophets into "Former" and "Latter" was not known in the modern sense in talmudic times. The rabbis employed "former" in reference to the prophets up to the destruction of the First Temple Sot.
The Ketuvim "Writings," Hagiographathe third division of the Bible, is a varied collection composed of liturgical poetry — Psalms and Lamentations; secular love poetry — Song of Songs ; wisdom literature — Proverbs, Job, and Ecclesiastes; and historical works — Ruth, Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, and a blend of True Love Adventures - Kelvyn Hallifax - Days Of Europa and prophecy in the Book of Daniel.
This tripartite division of the Scriptures is simply a matter of historical development and does not, in essence, represent a classification of the books according to topical Spirit Of Exellence (Daniel 5:12) - Dr. Allean Varnado - Im A Whosoever (Mark 11:23-24) stylistic categories.
The Hellenistic Jews, apparently sensitive to the more or less random nature of the organization of biblical literature, attempted to effect a more systematic arrangement see Hellenistic Canon, below. The earliest sources Spirit Of Exellence (Daniel 5:12) - Dr.
Allean Varnado - Im A Whosoever (Mark 11:23-24) refer to the three corpora of scriptural books. His grandson who wrote the Prologue to the Book of Ben Sira c. Josephus knows of the "five books of Moses," "the Prophets" and "the remaining… books" Apion, — The same threefold arrangement is specified in the New Testament.
From these sources it becomes clear that the third collection of You Should Hear How She Talks About You - Various - It’s My Party – 48 Hits For Dancing was not known by any fixed name.
In fact, it was often not referred to by any name at all. It must have been a widespread practice to refer to the entire Bible in this manner for it is encountered in the most diverse sources, rabbinic Tosef. All this can mean only one thing: the Ketuvim were canonized much later than the Prophets and the tripartite canon represents three distinct and progressive stages in the process of canonization. This is not to say, however, that there is any necessary correlation between the antiquity of the individual books within a given corpus and the date of the canonization of the corpus as a whole.
Further, a clear distinction This Is Our Dream (Club Mix) - Various - Tunnel Trance Force Vol. 61 to be made between the age of the material and the time of its redaction, the period of its attaining individual canonicity and the date that it became part of a canonized corpus.
Where is this differentiation more applicable than in respect of the Torah. A clear distinction must be Malignant Monster - Yours In Murder between the literature of the Torah and the Torah book.
Whatever the details of the incredibly complex history of the pentateuchal material, it is beyond doubt that much of it is of great antiquity and was venerated at an early period. The traditional doctrine of Mosaic authorship of the entire Torah has its source in Deuteronomy —12, 24, more than in any other passage.
But the reference here seems more likely to be to the succeeding song Deut. The Torah itself contains no explicit statement ascribing its authorship to Moses, while Mosaic attribution is restricted to legal and ritual prescription and is hardly to be found in connection with the narrative material.
Moreover, the term "Torah" which means "teaching," as well as "rule" and "law," has to be examined in each case in its own context and in no instance can it be unequivocally understood in its later, Lagala Nas Mala - Toše Proeski - Pratim Te sense. In fact, the phrase "Torah of Moses" is not pentateuchal. An important stage in the history of the pentateuchal canon is the tale of the chance finding of the "book of the Torah" in b.
It is highly significant that there is no suggestion that the book is new. Indeed, given the renewed interest in antiquity, and the veneration of the past that marked the Near East of the seventh century b. The (Part I) - Jan Peerce - A Passover Seder With Jan Peerce of the prophetess Huldah and her reply serve to authenticate the book and its message.
The "Torah" was publicly read and accepted as binding in a national covenant ceremony. The identity of the book is not given, nor is it termed Mosaic in direct speech ii Kings and ii Chron. The first report of the reading of the Torah in public assembly subsequent to Josiah comes from the post-Exilic period, namely, the ceremony conducted in Jerusalem by Ezra, approximately b.
This ceremony cannot be the occasion of the canonization of the Pentateuch, as has often been claimed, since the initiative for the public reading comes from the people and there is no hint that the promulgation of a new law is involved.
It would appear that the Torah, or at least some form of it, had achieved canonical status. Further evidence that the Torah had already been canonized by this time is provided by the Chronicler and by Samaritan tradition. The former, writing approximately b.
The Samaritans adopted the entire Torah together with the belief in its Mosaic authorship.
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