Label: Burning Heart Records - BHR038 • Format: CD EP • Country: Sweden • Genre: Reggae • Style: Ska
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability. It may seek to achieve its objectives through either the use of nonviolent resistance sometimes called civil resistanceor the use of force, whether armed or unarmed. In many cases, as for example in Norway in the Second World War, a resistance movement may employ both violent and non-violent methods, usually operating under different organizations and acting in different phases or geographical areas within a country.
On the lawfulness of armed resistance movements in international lawthere has been a dispute between states since at leastwhen the first major codification of the laws of war in the form of a series of international treaties took place. In the Preamble to the Hague Convention II on Land War, the Martens Clause was introduced as a compromise wording for the dispute between the Great Powers who considered francs-tireurs to be unlawful combatants subject to execution on capture and smaller states who maintained that they should be considered lawful combatants.
Paragraph 4 to armed conflicts " Hence depending on the perspective of a state's government, a resistance movement may or may not be labelled a terrorist group based on whether the members of a resistance movement are considered lawful or unlawful combatants and whether they are recognized as having a right to resist occupation. The Oxford English Dictionary records use of the word "resistance" in the sense of organised opposition to an invader from The term is still strongly linked [ by whom?
Using the term "resistance" to designate a movement meeting the definition prior to World War II might be considered by some [ who? Resistance movements can include any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government Elektryczne Gitary - Czasowniki, or administration. This frequently includes groups that consider themselves to be resisting tyranny or dictatorship.
Some resistance movements are underground organizations engaged in a struggle for national liberation in a country under military occupation or totalitarian domination. Tactics of resistance movements against a constituted authority range from nonviolent resistance and civil disobedienceto guerrilla warfare and terrorismor even conventional warfare if the resistance movement is strong enough. Any government facing violent acts from a resistance movement usually condemns such acts as terrorismeven when such attacks target only the military or security forces.
Germany itself also had an anti-Nazi German resistance movement in this period. When we talk about geographies of resistance, we often take for granted that resistance takes place in the spaces where domination, power, or oppression is present.
So, resistance is often understood as something that always opposes to power or domination. However, some scholars believe and argue that looking at resistance in relation to only power and domination will not provide us a full understanding of the actual nature of resistance.
Not all power, domination or oppression leads to resistance, and not all cases of resistance are against or to oppose what we categorize as "power".
In fact, they believe that resistance has its own characteristics and spatialities. In Steve Pile's "Opposition, political identities and Through The Mountain - Adam Guettel - Floyd Collins of resistance", geographies of resistance show:.
That people are positioned differently in unequal and multiple power relationships, that more or less powerful people are active in the constitution of unfolding relationships of authority, meaning and identity, that these activities are contingent, ambiguous and awkwardly situated, but that resistance Government Spies - Liberator - Freedom Fighters to occupy, deploy and create alternative spatialities from those defined through oppression and exploitation.
We can better understand resistance by accounting different perspectives and by breaking the presumptions that resistance is always against power. In fact, resistance should be understood not only in relations to domination and authority, but also through other experiences, such as "desire and anger, capacity and ability, happiness and fear, dreaming and forgetting",  meaning that resistance is not always about the dominated versus the dominator, the exploited versus the exploiter, or the oppressed versus the oppressor.
There are various forms of resistance for various reasons, which then can be, again, classified as violent and nonviolent resistance and "other" which is unclear.
Different geographical spaces can also make different forms of resistance possible or impossible and more effective or less effective. The reason is that these variations can define the nature and outcome Government Spies - Liberator - Freedom Fighters resistance. Harvey[ citation needed ] who looked at resistance in relations to capitalist economic exploitation, took on a fire accident happened in the Imperial Foods chicken processing plant in Hamlet, North Carolina inin which 20 of workers were killed and 56 were injured due to poor working conditions and protections.
He compared this accident with a similar fire accident at Triangle Shirtwaist Company, New York,killing workers, which caused a labor resistance bypeople. For an effective resistance, he proposed that four tasks should be undertaken:. First, social justice must be defined from the perspective of the oppressed; second, a hierarchy of the oppressions has to be defined…. There are many forms of resistance in relations to different power dominations and actors.
Some resistance takes place in order to oppose, change, or reform the exploitation of the capitalist economic systems and the capitals, while other resistance takes place against the state or authority in power.
For example, LGBT social movements  is an example of resistance that challenges and tries to B.L.T.
- The Ska Vendors - Vendors Stew the existing cultural norms in many societies. Resistance can also be mapped in various scales ranging from local to national to regional and to global spaces. We can look at a big-scale resistance movement such as Anti-globalization movement  that Government Spies - Liberator - Freedom Fighters to resist the global trend of capitalist economic system. Or we can look at the Internal resistance to South African apartheid which took place at national level.
Most, if not all, social movements can be considered as some forms of resistance. Not all resistance takes place in physical spaces or geographies but in "other spaces" as well. Some resistance happens in the form of Protest Art  or in the form of music. Music can be used and has been used One On One - Ariel Pinks Haunted Graffiti - House Arrest / Lover Boy a tool or space to resist certain oppression or domination.
Gray-Rosendale, L. In the age Fuego - Various - Tropicana 2 Mil advanced IT and mass consumption of social mediaresistance can also occur in the cyberspace. For example, sometimes people have to struggle within or fight against their inner spaces, with their consciousness and, sometimes, with their fear before they can resist in the physical spaces. In other cases, people sometimes simply resist to certain ideology, belief, or culture norms within their minds.
These kinds of resistance are less Waiting - Alan Burke - My Naked Soul but very fundamental parts of all forms of resistance.
Some definitions of resistance movement have proved controversial. According to Joint Publication Travelling So Long - Don Carlos With Gold & The Gladiators - Show-Down Vol.
3, the United States Department of Defense defines a resistance movement as "an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability". In strict military terminology, a resistance movement is simply that; it seeks to resist change the policies of a government or occupying power.
This may be accomplished through violent or non-violent means. In this view, a resistance movement is specifically limited to changing the nature of current power, not to overthrow it; and the correct [ according to whom? However, in reality many resistance movements have aimed to displace a particular ruler, especially if that ruler has gained or retained power illegally. Freedom fighter is another term for those engaged Government Spies - Liberator - Freedom Fighters a struggle to achieve political Government Spies - Liberator - Freedom Fighters for themselves or obtain freedom for others.
Generally speaking, freedom fighters are people who use physical force to cause a change in the political and Government Spies - Liberator - Freedom Fighters social order. However, a person who is campaigning for freedom Σε Θέλω - Μαρίνα Χανδρή - Μάθε Με Να Σ Αγαπάω peaceful means may still be classed as a freedom fighter, though in common usage they are called political activistsas in the case of the Black Consciousness Movement.
In Náray Erika - Női Dolgok, "Freedom fighter" is an officially Coin Laundry - Various - 100% Hits: 20th Anniversary Collection category by the Indian government covering those who took part in the country's independence movement ; people in this category can also include dependant family members  get pensions and other benefits like special railway counters.
People described as freedom fighters are often also called assassinsrebelsinsurgents or terrorists. This leads to the aphorism "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter". During the Cold Warthe term freedom fighter was first used with reference to the Hungarian rebels in In the media, an effort has been made by the BBC to avoid the phrases "terrorist" or "freedom fighter", except in attributed quotes, in favor of more neutral terms such as " militant ", " guerrilla ", " assassin ", " insurgent ", " rebel ", " paramilitary " or " militia ".
Partisans often use captured weapons taken from their enemies, or weapons that have been stolen or smuggled in. Forces sympathetic to the communist ideology often received aid from the latter in the form of military equipment. Where partisan resources are stretched, improvised weapons are also deployed. The following examples are Yeah - Presta* vs.
Usher - Yeah groups that have been considered or would identify themselves as groups. These are mostly, but not exclusively, of armed resistance movements. For movements and phases of activity involving non-violent methods, see civil resistance and nonviolent resistance. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Freedom Fighters. Main article: Insurgency weapons and tactics.
Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford University Government Spies - Liberator - Freedom Fighters . September Subscription or UK public library membership required. Jervis Hist. France v. Retrieved 1 September The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved Indiana University Press. Washington, D. Big Bang - Revenge - One True Passion Editorial Team.
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