Label: Labile Music - Labile 13 • Format: CDr Compilation • Country: US • Genre: Electronic • Style: Abstract, Musique Concrète, Experimental
A guitar amplifier or amp is an electronic device or system that strengthens the weak electrical signal from a pickup on an electric guitarbass guitaror acoustic guitar so that it Livin Alone - Beck, Bogert & Appice - Beck, Bogert, Appice produce sound through one or more loudspeakerswhich are typically housed in a wooden cabinet.
A guitar amplifier may be a standalone wood or metal cabinet that contains only the power amplifier and preamplifier circuits, requiring the use of a separate speaker cabinet—or it may be a "combo" amplifier, which contains Cumulus - Various - Tensile: International Experimental Acoustic Guitar Anthology the amplifier and one or more speakers in a wooden cabinet. Guitar amplifiers can also modify the instrument's tone by emphasizing or de-emphasizing certain frequencies, using equalizer controls, which function the same way as the bass and treble knobs on a home hi-fi stereo, and by adding electronic effects ; distortion also called "overdrive" and reverb are commonly available as built-in features.
For electric guitar players, their choice of guitar amp and the settings they use on the amplifier are a key part of their signature tone or sound. Some guitar players are longtime users of a specific amp brand or model. Guitarists may also use external effects pedals to alter the sound of their tone before the signal reaches the amplifier. In the s, it was very hard for a musician playing a pickup-equipped guitar to find an amplifier and speaker to make their instrument louder as the only speakers that could be bought were "radio horns of limited frequency range and low acoustic output".
The cone speaker, widely used in s-era amp cabinets, was not offered for sale until The first amplifiers and speakers could only be powered with large batteries, which made them heavy and hard to carry around. When Cumulus - Various - Tensile: International Experimental Acoustic Guitar Anthology developed the first AC mains -powered amplifiers, they were soon used to make musical instruments louder.
Engineers invented the first loud, powerful amplifier and speaker systems for public address systems and movie theaters. These large PA systems and movie theatre sound systems were very large and very expensive, and so they could not be used by most touring musicians. Aftersmaller, portable AC mains-powered PA systems that could be plugged into a regular wall socket "quickly became popular with musicians"; indeed, " These early amps had a "single volume control and one or two input jacks, field coil speakers" and thin wooden cabinets; remarkably, these early amps did not have tone controls or even an on-off switch.
Inthe Stromberg-Voisinet firm was the first company to sell an electric stringed instrument and amplifier package. However, musicians found that the amps had an "unsatisfactory tone and volume, [and] dependability problems", so the product did not sell well.
Even though the Stromberg-Voisinet amp did not sell well, it still launched a new idea: a portable electric instrument amp with a speaker, all in an easily transported wooden cabinet. InVega electrics launched a portable banjo amplifier. InElectro String Instruments and amplifier this is not the same company as Stromberg Electro Instruments introduced a guitar amp with "high output" and a "string driven magnetic pickup".
Electro set out Cumulus - Various - Tensile: International Experimental Acoustic Guitar Anthology standard template for combo amps: a wooden cabinet with the Cumulus - Various - Tensile: International Experimental Acoustic Guitar Anthology amplifier mounted inside, and a convenient carrying handle to facilitate transporting the cabinet.
InVivi-Tone amp set-ups were used for live performances and radio shows. InRickenbacker launched a similar combo amp that added metal corner protectors to keep the corners in good condition during transportation.
InDobro released an electric guitar and amp package. InAudio-Vox was founded by Paul Tutmarcthe Cumulus - Various - Tensile: International Experimental Acoustic Guitar Anthology of the first electric bass Tutmarc's instrument did not achieve market success until Leo Fender 's launched the Precision Bass.
InVega sold a pickup and amplifier Cumulus - Various - Tensile: International Experimental Acoustic Guitar Anthology for musicians to use with existing guitars. Volu-Tone used "high voltage current" to sense the string vibration, a potentially dangerous approach that did not become popular.
In Dobro released a guitar amp with a vacuum tube rectifier and two power tubes. ByDobro and National began selling combo amps for Hawaiian guitar. InGibson had developed prototype combo amps, but never them. The first electric instrument amplifiers were not intended for electric guitars, but were portable PA systems.
These appeared in the early s when the introduction of electrolytic capacitors and rectifier tubes enabled economical built-in power supplies that could plug into wall sockets. Previously, amplifiers required heavy multiple battery packs. People used these amplifiers to amplify acoustic guitarbut electronic amplification of guitar first became widely poplular in the s and s craze for Hawaiian musicwhich extensively used amplified lap steel guitars.
In the s, the earliest combo amplifiers had no tone controls. The first tone controls were simple, mainly providing treble adjustment. The limited controls, the early loudspeakersand the low amplifier power typically 15 watts or less prior to the mids gave poor high treble and bass output. Some models also provided effects such as an electronic tremolo unit. In confusion over nomenclature, Fender labeled early amplifier tremolo as "vibrato" and called the vibrato arm of the Stratocaster guitar a "tremolo bar" see vibrato unitelectric guitarand tremolo.
Some later amplifier models included an onboard spring reverb effect, one of the first being the Ampeg Reverberocket amp. In the s, several guitarists experimented with producing distortion by deliberately overdriving amplifiers. Distortion became more popular from the mids, when The Kinks guitarist Dave Davies produced distortion effects by connecting the already distorted output of one amplifier into the input of another. Later, most guitar Engel - Ross Antony - Goldene Pferde (Very British Edition) were provided with preamplifier distortion controls, and "fuzz boxes" and other effects units were engineered to safely and reliably produce these sounds.
In the s, overdrive and distortion has become an integral part of many styles of electric guitar playing, ranging from blues rock to heavy metal and hardcore punk. Guitar combo amplifiers were at first used with bass guitars and electric pianosbut these instruments produce a wider frequency range and need a full-range speaker system. Much more amplifier power is required to reproduce low-frequency sound, especially at high volume. Reproducing low frequencies also requires a suitable woofer or subwoofer speaker and enclosurewith bass cabinets often being larger in size than a cabinet for mid-range or high-range sounds.
As well, the open-back cabinets used on many electric guitar amps, while effective for electric guitar, do not have good bass reproduction. Woofer enclosures must be larger and more sturdily built than cabinets for mid-range or high-frequency tweeter Cumulus - Various - Tensile: International Experimental Acoustic Guitar Anthology . As such, in the s, when Ampeg introduced bass amplifier and speaker systems, bass guitarists began to use them.
Similarly, Hammond organ players used a specialized keyboard combo amplifier, the Leslie speaker cabinet, which contains a woofer for the low frequencies and a horn for the high frequencies.
The Leslie horns rotate and a baffle around the woofer rotates as well, producing a rich tremolo and chorus effect. Typically, guitar amplifiers have two amplifying circuit stages and in addition frequently have tone-shaping electric circuits, which usually include at least bass and treble controls, which function similarly to the equivalent controls on a home hi-fi system.
More expensive amplifiers typically have more controls for other frequency ranges, such as one or two "midrange" controls and a "presence" control for high frequencies. Some guitar amplifiers have a graphic equalizerwhich uses vertical faders to control multiple frequency bands. Some more expensive bass amps have a parametric equalizerwhich enables precise control of tone.
The first amplifier stage is a preamplifier. It amplifies the audio signal to a level that can Cumulus - Various - Tensile: International Experimental Acoustic Guitar Anthology the power stage. The preamplifier also changes the tone of the signal; high preamp settings add overdrive. The power amplifier produces a high current signal to drive a loudspeaker and produce sound. Tone stages may also provide electronic effects—such as equalizationcompression, distortion, chorusor reverb.
Amplifiers may use vacuum tubes called valves in Britainsolid-state transistor devices, or both. The two common guitar amplifier configurations are: a combination "combo" amplifier that includes an amplifier Concerto No 1 For Piano, Trumpet And String Orchestra, Op 35: Moderato - Dmitri Shostakovich - Conce one or more speakers Lick It Up - Deep Purple - The Battle Rages On. a single cabinet, and a standalone amplifier often called a "head" or "amp head"which passes the amplified signal via a speaker cable to one or more external speaker cabinets.
A wide range of speaker configurations are available in guitar cabinets—from cabinets with a single speaker e. Guitar amplifiers vary widely in price and quality. Other companies produce expensive custom-made amplifiers for professional musicians, which can cost hundreds or even thousands of dollars USD. Most combo amplifiers have a carrying handle, and many combo amplifiers and cabinets have metal or plastic-reinforced corners to protect the amp during transportation.
Control knobs and buttons are typically on the front of the cabinet or chassis, though in some cases, the knobs are on a recessed panel at the back of the top of the amplifier. The most basic amps only have a few knobs, which typically control volume, bass and treble.
More expensive amps may have a number of knobs that control pre-amp volume or "gain"distortion or overdrive, volume, bass, mid and treble, and reverb.
Some older amps and their re-issued versions have a knob that controls a vibrato or tremolo effect. Some amps have an XLR jack for a microphone, either for the guitar amp to be used for singing in effect as a mini- PA systemor, for acoustic guitar, to mix a mic signal with a pickup signal.
The vast majority of guitar amps can only be powered by AC mains power plugging into a wall outlet ; however, a small number of practice amps designed for buskers also have battery power so they can be used for street performances. A combo amp contains the amplifier and one or more speakers in a single cabinet. In a "head and speaker cabinet" configuration, the amplifier and speaker each have their own cabinet.
The amplifier head may drive one or more speaker cabinets. In the s, guitarists played through public address amplifiers, but by the s this was uncommon. Some guitar amps have an XLR input so that a microphone can be plugged in for singing. Guitar amps that include a mic input are in effect small, portable PA systems. Some amps, typically bass amps, have an XLR connector to provide a balanced output from the preamp section to a PA system or recording input.
Instrument amplifiers are available in a wide range of price, quality, and performance levels. Some are designed for beginners, such as small, low-wattage practice ampswhich typically have a single 8" speaker and about 10 watts, or smaller "combo" amps with relatively low wattage 15 to 20 watts and a single 10" speaker.
Mid- to large-size "combo" amps with 30 to 50 watts and one 12" speaker or four 10" speakers are best for high-volume situations, such as band rehearsals and onstage performances. Vacuum tubes called "valves" in British English were by far the dominant active electronic components in most instrument amplifier applications until the s, when solid-state semiconductors transistors started taking over.
Transistor amplifiers are less expensive to build and maintain, reduce the weight and heat of an amplifier, and tend to be more reliable and more shock-resistant. Tubes are fragile and they must be replaced and maintained periodically. As well, serious problems with the tubes can render an amplifier inoperable until the issue is resolved. While tube-based circuitry is technologically outdated, tube amps remain popular since many guitarists prefer their sound. Most inexpensive and mid-priced guitar amplifiers are Aken Headz - Ghetto All-Stars - Grass Root Edition - Volume One on transistor or semiconductor solid-state circuits, which are cheaper to produce and more reliable, and usually much lighter than tube amplifiers.
High-end solid-state amplifiers are less common, since many professional guitarists favor vacuum tubes. Only a few solid-state amps have enduring attraction, such as the Roland Jazz Chorus. A hybrid amplifier involves one of two combinations of tube and solid-state amplification. It may have a tube power amp fed by a solid-state pre-amp circuit, as in most of the original MusicMan amplifiers.
Alternatively, a tube preamplifier can feed a solid-state output stage, as in models from KustomHartke, SWR and Vox. This approach dispenses with the need for an output transformer and easily achieves modern power levels. Microprocessor technology allows the use of digital onboard effects in guitar Cumulus - Various - Tensile: International Experimental Acoustic Guitar Anthology to create numerous different sounds and tones that simulate the sound of a range of tube amplifiers and different sized speaker cabinets, all using the same amplifier and speaker.
These are known as modeling amplifiersand can be programmed with simulated characteristic tones of different existing amplifier models and speaker cabinets—even microphone type or placementor dialed in to the user's taste.
Many amps of this type are also programmable by way of USB connection to a home computer or laptop. The use of "full range, flat response" FRFR amplification systems by electric guitarists has received an Девочка-Дюймовочка - Дочь Монро И Кеннеди - Поражение impetus from modeling amplifiers.
Before widespread availability of modeling, guitarists did not commonly plug electric guitars straight into PA systems or powered speakersbecause most genres relied on the tonal coloration of a II II I IV II I I IV I - Watcha - Watcha guitar amplifier setup—from the preamplifierequalization filters, power ampguitar speakersand cabinet design.
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