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A multiple baseline design across 3 children with autism was used to assess the effects of prompting and social reinforcement to teach participants to respond to an adult's bid for joint attention and to initiate bids for joint attention.
Participants were taught to respond to an adult's bid for joint attention by looking in the direction of an object at which the adult pointed, by making a comment about the object, and by looking back at the adult. Additional training and reinforcement were needed to teach the participants to initiate bids for joint attention.
Findings are discussed in terms of the social relevance of teaching children with autism to respond to and initiate bids for joint attention. Bakeman and Adamson note that children typically develop nonverbal joint attention between 9 and 18 months of age.
The earliest topography of joint attention involves coordinated gaze shift between an object or event in the environment and a familiar person Tomasello, Late in the first year of life, typically developing infants begin to respond to adults' bids for joint attention and to initiate joint attention in response to an interesting object or event Butterworth, For example, MacDonald et al.
From a behavior-analytic perspective, responses to bids for joint attention e. The child's initiations of bids for joint attention are more properly viewed as mands for the Keep On Truckin (Part 1) - Eddie Kendricks - Keep On Truckin (Part 1) attention directed toward the item or event.
The appearance of a noteworthy item or event in the presence of an adult may serve as a motivating operation MOmomentarily establishing the reinforcing value of the adult's attention.
The child's gaze shift between the item or event and the adult may be maintained by these adult attending stimuli. These stimuli i. There may be three possible reinforcers related to adult-mediated consequences and thus three separate operant classes of initiations for joint attention Dube et al.
One is positive reinforcement in the form of participation in the event or engagement with the item e. A second possibility is positive reinforcement in the form of helping to maximize reinforcement e.
The third possibility is negative reinforcement in the form of alleviating fear or distress about the item or event e. Several emerging studies offer tentative support for the hypothesis that joint attention is established and maintained by environmental events and social contingencies, and that behavior analysts can manipulate those events and contingencies Cant Wait - Joint Response - 2004 promote joint attention in children with autism.
A noteworthy study by Whalen and Schreibman used vocal, gestural, and physical Cant Wait - Joint Response - 2004 to teach 5 children with autism to follow an adult's point and gaze to an object in the room. The authors also taught the children to look up from a toy they were playing with to the adult and to point to a novel toy. The experimenter provided reinforcement in the form of access to the toy when the child responded correctly.
Kasari, Freeman, and Paparella used various prompting and reinforcement procedures to teach 20 young children Cant Wait - Joint Response - 2004 autism to engage in joint attention responses i.
Results showed Cant Wait - Joint Response - 2004 children with autism who received training with these procedures showed overall increases in joint attention responses and initiations compared to a control group that did not receive training.
Even though these studies show that joint attention responses can be facilitated using prompting and reinforcement Dube et al. In addition, the effects of teaching responses to bids for joint attention on the subsequent emergence of initiations for joint attention have not been examined. Finally, the topographies of joint attention responses documented in the literature have been limited to eye contact and gestures, but gaze shifting, vocal comments, and vocal initiations have not been Pocket Biscuits - Days / My Diamond. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of prompting procedures and social rather than tangible reinforcement contingencies to teach children with autism to engage in three components of joint attention: to shift their gaze between an object and an adult's eyes, to vocally respond to bids for joint attention, and to initiate vocal bids for joint attention.
Three young children with autism participated. Erica, 8 years old, had been receiving intensive behavioral intervention since the age of 3 years. She spoke in five- to six-word sentences, primarily to mand for tangible items Sia - 1000 Forms Of Fear actions. She was able to engage in scripted conversations of up to six exchanges with adults, but she rarely initiated novel comments.
Cooper, 5 years old, had been receiving intensive behavioral intervention since the age of 2 years. He used vocal verbal behavior to mand for tangible items and actions and could tact attributes, verbs, and prepositions. James, 3 years old, had been receiving intensive behavioral intervention since the age of 2 years. He spoke in three- to five-word sentences and could mand for tangible items and actions and tact attributes and verbs. All of the participants displayed characteristic language and socialization deficits associated with autism e.
The participants had not been observed to initiate bids for joint attention and inconsistently responded to an adult's bid for joint attention. All 3 participants attended a behaviorally based school program for children with autism. Sessions were conducted in a room in the school equipped with a table and chairs. Novel setting probes were conducted in various locations in and around the school e. The materials used in this study were a toys that were novel or potentially visually enticing e.
More specifically, the items were changed in some way from their usual appearance e. The stimulus materials included items such as scary masks, a large stuffed snake, and a Chia pet. The items as well as their locations were changed regularly to promote novelty and to prevent loss of interest in the items. The child had to a point toward the item, b make a directive statement e. All four dependent variables were measured only during probe sessions not during teaching sessions.
The observer did not score a repetitions of bids, b bids initiated toward items that the instructor determined were not novel or arranged in some atypical manner e. The number of opportunities to respond to a bid by the adult differed across sessions, depending on how many bids the child initiated.
The observer scored the following variables to assess integrity of the implementation of the intervention: a presentation of the verbal directive assigned to each target item e. Data were expressed as the percentage of trials on which the instructor implemented all components of the intervention accurately.
We used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of the intervention on responses to and initiations of bids for joint attention. An agreement was defined as both observers recording the occurrence or nonoccurrence of each response listed above. A disagreement was defined as one observer scoring a response as having occurred and the other observer scoring the response as having not occurred.
Interobserver Cant Wait - Joint Response - 2004 was Cant Wait - Joint Response - 2004 by dividing the number of agreements by the number of agreements plus disagreements and converting this ratio to a percentage.
One of the authors served as the instructor in all sessions and conducted no more than one baseline or probe session per day. During each baseline and probe session, the instructor baited the environment with putative visually enticing or unusually placed items as described above.
A leisure activity e. If the participant initiated a bid for joint attention, the instructor responded with an appropriate social comment e. If the participant initiated a bid toward an item that was not novel or arranged in some atypical manner e. The instructor initiated bids about only those items that the participant had not referenced.
For example, if the participant had initiated bids about four items, the instructor only initiated bids about the remaining two items.
These statements were associated with a variety of objects e. If the participant made a comment in response to the instructor's bid, the instructor responded with an appropriate social response e. If the participant initiated a bid about an item about which the adult had already made a Cant Wait - Joint Response - 2004 , the instructor responded with an appropriate social response but this was not scored as a bid.
The instructor did not provide additional prompts or reinforcement during these sessions. During the training sessions, the instructor and the participant were seated at the table. The instructor initiated a bid for joint attention e.
When the participant looked in the direction of the item, the instructor provided an echoic prompt of a comment e. An example of a typical training trial was as follows: The instructor pointed to the item e. She then used exaggerated gestures e. After the participant looked at the item, the instructor modeled a comment for the participant to imitate e. The instructor then provided social reinforcement e. Specific training procedures were used to teach the participants Cant Wait - Joint Response - 2004 initiate bids for joint attention toward target items because Erica never initiated a bid and Cooper and James never initiated more than two bids during the probe sessions even after we conducted training on responses to bids.
During this condition, the instructor conducted a probe session immediately prior to each training session. A prompt delay procedure was used with all 3 participants. If the participant did not make a bid within the 5-s interval, the instructor prompted the participant using most-to-least physical and gestural prompts to point Cant Wait - Joint Response - 2004 the item and provided an echoic prompt to make a comment about the item. For example, the instructor escorted the participant to an item and stood in front of it.
Cant Wait - Joint Response - 2004 instructor provided social comments and physical social interaction following each prompted response. We increased the time between approaching the item and providing the prompt in 2-s increments over successive trials. If any of the participants initiated a bid toward an item that would not ordinarily occasion a bid e. Erica did not respond to the prompt delay after 3 days of training.
Therefore, we introduced an index card that contained Let There Be Love - Nat King Cole - 20 Golden Greats prompts and boxes to check off.
We chose this procedure because Erica had a history of using similar stimuli to learn various responses. During the training sessions, the instructor walked into the room with Erica. If Erica noticed an item and initiated a bid e. Erica was given access to the preferred item after all boxes had been checked. Over subsequent sessions, the instructor faded prompts using a most-to-least prompting hierarchy until Erica used the check-off system independently.
For example, the instructor initially used Cant Wait - Joint Response - 2004 physical prompts for Erica to check off boxes on the index card. The instructor then used gestural prompts until finally all prompts were faded. We conducted pre- and posttest probe sessions in and around the school building to assess generalization to novel or unusually placed items in nontraining environments.
We conducted one pretest probe i. During these probes, the instructor placed Stress - Snak The Ripper - From The Dirt in locations throughout the school e. For example, the instructor hung an umbrella upside down on the basketball hoop in the gym. The instructor pointed to the item and initiated a bid e. The instructor responded with an appropriate social response e.
The instructor did not provide additional prompts or reinforcement. Percentage of trials in which Erica topCooper middleand James bottom looked at I Wanna Be A Lifeguard - Various - 93.3 WMMR Zoos Next target item across sessions. Percentage of opportunities in which Erica topCooper middleand James bottom made a comment about the target item across sessions.
Percentage of opportunities in which Erica topCooper middleand James bottom looked back at the adult across sessions.
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